There are many compounds and molecules which play vital role in our body system, peptide is one of them. These are the polymers which are formed by forming the bond between the amino acids. Peptides are very small chain of amino acids. Maximum of 50 amino acids are needed to form the peptide molecules. These are very simple to synthesize. Peptides are highly used in the pharmaceutical companies for preparing different medicines. These are very potent and bear very less side effects thus these are best to be used as the medicines more over they are also used as diagnostic tool to detect many disorders.
Amino acids are bipolar molecules with terminal carboxylic and amine group. These act as acid as well as base due to the presence of both groups. Terminal acidic and the basic groups are the reacting sites of the peptide bond. The reaction takes place as follow: carboxylic group of one amino acid is acidic in nature forms bond with the amine group of other amino acid that bears the basic character, as a result amide bond is formed which is called as the peptide bond. The whole process of peptide formation also results in the liberation of the water molecules thus it comes under the condensation process.
Peptide bond is planer in its structure because of presence of the carbon-carbon double bond in it which restricts the rotation of the molecule to any dimension. Biologically these are synthesized by the ribosome; these are the cell organelles and synthesize the peptide during translation process. Peptides play very important role in all the life processes. Proteins when digested in our body, then these breakdowns in to the small fragments peptides. Some of these act like digestive enzyme.
Their main function is to catalyse the complex process; some molecules of peptides are converted to hormones which enhance the body functions by regulating all the functions properly. Peptides also aids to our immune system to make it strong. Being less reactive and assessable these are the best tools to be used in the clinical as well as in the diagnostic field. Peptides thus exhibit many functions in medical field. Their activity is very short in the body and metabolism rate is very high due to which these liberate fewer effects in the body. Thus peptides are in great demand in the field of science and medicines.