Manufacturing of vehicles is a complex process that involves assembling different components into a final product. The durability and performance of such structures are mainly dependent on the quality of structure component joints. The proper joining of metal components in this structure is vital for providing strength and durability to vehicles. There are standard methods for joining metals during the vehicle manufacturing process. Let us take a look at the most widely used methods for joining of metal components.
Welding is the process of joining two metal parts together by melting them at high temperatures. In fact, the temperature used for welding is the highest among all other joining methods.
There are many factors to examine before proceeding with the process of welding such as the influence of porosity, chemical composition, contamination and distortion of base metals.
The process of welding is used to create axle cases, engine valves, half shafts, steering columns, pistons rods, hydraulic cylinders, etc.
Brazing is the process of joining two or more metal components by melting and pouring a filler metal in between them. The filler metal acts as a bonding agent between the base metals. In the process of brazing, filler metal melts above 450°C.
Brazing is a flexible joining method that can produce permanent, leak-free and strong joints. The joint that undergoes brazing can offer strengths greater than brazed materials themselves. Brazed joints have ductility to withstand considerable weight, shock and vibration.
The process of brazing used for the following purposes:
- Brazing of aluminium parts for air-conditioning systems, for example, evaporator and condenser connections (tube-to-tube, tube-to-block, tube-to-tank)
- Brazing of steel and copper components, e.g., brake linings, fuel injection pipes
- Brazing of short-circuiting rings for electric motors
Soldering is the process of joining two metals together by melting a third metal acting as filler between them. The filler metal melts below the temperature 450°C.
The process of soldering and brazing are very similar in execution. Both use a third metal to act as filler between the two base metal parts. The distinction between the two processes is the temperatures they use for melting of filler metal.
Soldering used for joining of parts in electronic circuits, ABS, braking components etc.
The strength of a joint that has been welded is more than that of a joint that has been brazed or soldered. However, unlike welding, metal pieces joined using the process of brazing or soldering does not create any distortions or weaknesses on the base metals.
Not following the standard methods for joining can result in weaker joints and ultimately lead to the creation of a weak component structure. Weak component structures are not durable and offer substandard performance. Therefore, it is essential to follow the industry standards for welding brazing and soldering. These standards are a subpart of sets of Industry standards for vehicle manufacture.